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Cross-Cultural Themes Series. Author, Peter T. Furst. Edition, illustrated, reprint. Publisher, Chandler & Sharp, ISBN, , Hallucinogens and Culture has 34 ratings and 1 review. Blair said: A guy who works at Loui’s gave me this book when he saw I was reading Terence McKenna . HALLUCINOGENS AND CULTURE by PETER T. FURST. San. Francisco: Chandler & Sharp Publishers, Inc., pp. $ Reviewed by William.

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The literary, folkloric, historical, and archaeological evidence for its use in ancient medicine and as a ritual intoxicant is extensive, beginning with what is generally believed to be the earliest reference to the therapeutic value of Cannabis in a Chinese treatise on pharmacology attributed to the legendary emperor Shen Nung and said to date from BC cf.

At haklucinogens I have found this to be so, and I have seen Indians make the same transitions during rituals. How much of this is a syncretism with Christianity and how much is original with the Fang is difficult to say. MDA methylene dioxyamphetamine is an amination product of safrol, and the closely related MMDA 3- methoxy-4,5-methylene dioxyphenyl isopropylamine is a synthetic compound derived from the addition of ammonia to myristicin, the most important primary constituent of nutmeg.

How can one doubt that the men smeared with this pitch became wizards or demons, capable of seeing and speaking to the devil haallucinogens, since the ointment had been prepared for that purpose?

This is sufficient to bring about the desired ecstatic dream state in which one travels outside one’s body to Otherworlds, where the ancestors dwell and where one learns to do their work as distinct from the burdensome and psychologically disorienting demands of the rapidly modernizing world outside the tropical rain forest. The early literature lists alleviation of fatigue, hunger, and thirst, and also ritual intoxication among the principal reasons for the practice. The insights are, I believe, so cukture to the understanding of traditional hallucinogens that it will be useful to spell them out in somewhat more detail by way of introduction to the topics covered in this book.

And in fact, as ecclesiastical writers of later centuries were forced to admit, the great expenditure of missionary zeal, the preaching, and the punishment seemed in the end to have accomplished little more than to drive these practices underground, where they were even harder to combat.


Hallucinogens and Culture (Chandler & Sharp series in cross-cultural themes)

The attitude of fust, priest, and commoner was imbued at times amd something approaching mysticism, as when tobacco was personified or even deified or when it was accepted as an ally fighting beside man to overcome fatigue or pain or to ward off so abd ills of the human flesh.

The paste is rolled out between the palms of the hands and modeling is done with the fingers. Facts, then, are seemingly irrelevant— at least they are less relevant or decisive than cultural conditioning. It was a sacred art, often an elaborate ceremonial lasting over many days, fully commensurate with the divine nature of tobacco and the metaphysical purposes for which the pipe was intended. Moreover, the active principles of Cannabis are perfectly capable of psychedelic effect, and have been so used through history, especially in Asia, probably long before hemp fiber began to assume economic importance.


Full text of “Furst Hallucinogens And Culture ( Chandler& Sharp, )”

It is even possible that kohobba or a closely related word was also applied to intoxicating snuffs based mainly on tobacco. Coe was able to identify a curious object held by a jaguar deity halkucinogens another painted Maya vessel as an enema syringe.

Neither sassafras oil nor sassafras tea, however, have the reputation of nutmeg as a psychoactive agent Shulgin etal. Intoxicating as well as medicinal enemas have been described both in the earliest European accounts of native customs, dating to the sixteenth century, and in the more recent ethnographic literature.

Moreover, as Brecher and others have shown, excessive use of alcohol carries far greater potential than turst for organic deterioration.

In Quechua, the language of the Incas of pre-Hispanic Peru and of millions of Andean Indians durst, the drink is eloquently called ayahuasca, meaning “vine of the souls,” a term that has been adopted also by some non-Quechua Indians east of the Andes. Pertinent to species differentiation on a chemical basis may be the unexpected, recent discovery, made independently by several workers, that chemical differences in Cannabis appear to be based more on a genetic basis than on environmental or edaphic factors.

With his spirit helpers or familiars, the shaman is preeminently guardian of the physical and psychic equilibrium of his group, for whom he intercedes in personal confrontation with the supernatural forces of the Upperworld and Underworld, to whose mystical geography he has become privy through initiatory crisis, training, and ecstatic trance.

For nearly a quarter-million North American Indians, their own efforts and those of their allies among anthropologists and civil libertarians over the past decades have finally made peyote use legal within the framework of the Native American Church. On the contrary, when studied in depth as all too few have been, the intellectual cultures of some of the materially least complex peoples— African Bushmen, Australian Aborigines, Arctic or tropical-forest hunters, or the “primitive” preagricultural Indians of California, for example— have been found to rival in metaphysical complexity and poetic imagery some of the world’s great institutionalized religions.

We also know that the original Americans sustained themselves with now extinct big game, especially mammoth and mastodon, giant sloth, Pleistocene camel and horse, as well as smaller animals and wild plants, and that their technology and general adaptations resembled by and large those of their contemporaries in comparable environments in Eurasia.


But I rather suspect that there is more to the eucharistic implication than just Christian acculturation. Four more days of ceremonies must pass before the pipe can be painted. He has kept himself at a fever pitch of emotion by the realization of the gravity and sacredness of the enterprise on which he is embarked and its importance to the well-being of his people, by incessant dancing and singing, and by the observance of innumerable rituals along the way.

In fact, it does not seem to have reached Europe until the first centuries of the Christian era, presumably through the agency of Arabian spice traders. Even for Indian Mexico or Amazonia, whose extensive psychoactive pharmacopoeia has been relatively well studied, we still do not know the identity of every species used in native ritual, prehistorically or at present, nor do we as yet fully understand the pharmacological or cultural role of additives to plants of known or suspected psychoactivity.

The pipe is smoothed with a wooden scraping tool and saliva produced as the maker chews “deer medicine.

Hallucinogens and Culture by Peter T. Furst

Huichol shamans “with a bad heart”— i. Peyote, to mention only one, has a proven cultural history of more than 2, years in Mesoamerica, and is likely to be far older still than its first botanically recognizable representation in archaeological tomb art dating to the period from BC to AD At Shanidar cave in northern Iraq archaeologists discovered pollen clusters of eight kinds of flowering plants in association with an adult male skeleton.

Interestingly enough, ordeals of this type if not necessarily of the same intensity were not uncommon even in ancient Mexico, notwithstanding the widespread use of plant hallucinogens to achieve altered states of consciousness.

To ask other readers questions about Hallucinogens and Cultureplease sign up. Against three to four hundred thousand opiate addicts in the United States certainly a shocking figure there are nevertheless ten to twelve million confirmed alcoholics and millions more “problem drinkers” with enormous potential for harm to themselves and society.

Still more await botanical and pharmacological identification beyond the native terms under which they appear in the ethnohistorical literature or reports of travelers and ethnographers.

Navaho pipes are dried for four days, either inside the hogan or in the crotch of a tree. Likewise, it is obviously culture and the attitudes and stereotypes it fosters— not any inherent characteristics or even their measurable medical and social consequences— that make one “social” drug, alcohol, legally and morally acceptable to us, and another, marihuana, not.