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1. Campomanesia xanthocarpa species, eudicots. J Med Food. May;14(5) doi: /jmf Epub Apr Antidiarrheal activity of Campomanesia xanthocarpa fruit. Souza-Moreira . This study reports extraction of Campomanesia xanthocarpa fruit using supercritical CO2 and its chemical composition and biological activity analysis.

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October 01, ; Accepted date: October 27, ; Published date: J Nutr Food Sci 2: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Native fruits are receiving special attention from food researchers all around the world. The Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg [ gabirobeira ] is a species native to Brazil, being xaanthocarpa of family Myrtaceae.

The gabirobeira produces a fruit named gabirobawhose pulp presents a nice acidic-sweet taste. This work was aimed at evaluating the gabiroba technological potential for use as a xanthoacrpa material for the food industry.

The gabiroba pulp was evaluated for its physical-chemical features.

In addition, the pectin that was extracted from the pulp was evaluated for its rheological features. The pulp bioactive compounds content, namely vitamin C, flavonoids, phenolics and carotenoids, was measured during days of freezer storage. The rheological measurements were performed through the use of a Haake RS 75 rheometer.

The generated flow curves were fitted by means of the Power Law and Herschel-Bulkley models. Results show that the gabiroba contains remarkable contents of iron, phosphorus, zinc, manganese, total phenolics [ During pulp storage, it was observed a decrease of There was a positive and significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds content, suggesting that campomwnesia capacity might be influenced in a synergic way by the detected bioactive campomaneisa.

The gabiroba pulp pectin presented a shear-thinning behavior, being the data best fitted by the Herschel-Bulkley model. The viscoelastic measurements showed that the dynamic moduli are frequency independent.

Concluding, gabiroba xanthodarpa a remarkable potential to be used as a raw material in the food industry due campomansia its rheological, functional [phytochemicals], sensory and nutritional [vitamins and mineral salts] features. Despite their large fructification, in addition to nutritional and attractive sensory characteristics, these fruits are not collected, being lost in the fields.

Campomanesia xanthocarpa – Useful Tropical Plants

The residue obtained was subjected to sequential extractions. The extractions were optimized using a factorial design 22, with xanthocaepa concentration of citric acid [0. The polysaccharides were characterized according to their chemical composition and rheological profile. The high concentrations of uronic acids, arabinose and galactose, detected in all fractions, indicate that they consist of camomanesia.

The results showed that the extraction method was efficient for fractionation of pectin from different areas of the cell wall.

The polysaccharides extracted from the fruit pulp of gabiroba showed a pseudoplastic behavior. All the fractions were resistant to temperature variations. When these gels are heated up and cooled down, they adopt their original structure.

The gabiroba is a native fruit which belong to the Myrtaceae family, presenting high acceptability due to its sensory features. Native fruits have been receiving much attention lately, not only due to their technological potential, but also due to the fact that they can be used to diversify the fruit production of a selected region [ 1 ].

Even though gabiroba presents a high potential to be used by food industries, data on its cultivation production and usability features are scarce. The gabirobeira can be naturally found in the Southern region of Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay [ 2 ]. The constitution of the percentage fractions of the fruit is sketched in figure 1 and is shown to the actual size of the fruit in two dimensions.

The ethylene production influences the process of fruit ripening, affecting a large number of physiological changes occurring during fruit ripening [ 3 ]. On the first day post-harvest, gabiroba had a lower ethylene production close to zero, and the greater production of ethylene 1. The increase in ethylene production was associated with changes in pigmentation, the decrease in the levels of acidity and the increase in soluble solids, suggesting that ethylene production contributed to these changes.


The elucidation of the operation and interaction between different components of these processes is aimed at increasing knowledge about the factors that could manipulate, control or interfere, allowing modifications that allow extending the shelf life of these fruits [ 5 ]. The ripe gabiroba presented remarkable levels of vitamin C, carotenoids and phenolics compounds.

From a nutritional perspective, gabiroba can be considered as a good source of vitamin C, since the consumption of two fruits The deficiency of vitamin A is a public health problem in developing countries, including some Brazilian regions [ 6 ]. The gabiroba presented a vitamin A content of In addition, the gabiroba presented a caratenoid content of When compared to other fruits, the gabiroba presents remarkable contents of iron, being superior to that of bananas 0.

Therefore, the gabiroba can be considered a good source of iron 6. In order to determine which solvent provides the highest antioxidant capacity of bioactive compounds, it is necessary perform the extraction with solvents of different polarity.

In this study, it was observed that the hydro alcoholic gabiroba pulp extract presented the highest TEAC values and the lowest EC 50 values. The obtained results reflect the different solvent polarities, being ethanol more polar than the petroleum ether for methods studied. Such result can be explained by the fact that the phenolics compounds are polar, presenting high affinity for polar solvents like ethanol.

On the other hand, the petroleum ether extracts more easily the lipophilic compounds, like carotenoids. Rheological measurements are an analytical tool that provides a proper profile of one food structural features. In fruit pulps, several factors contribute to the observed rheological behavior, such as temperature, soluble solids content and particle size [ 9 ]. It was observed a non-Newtonian behavior, since the relation between shear rate and shear stress is not linear.

In addition, the shear stress decreases with increasing shear rate, which denotes a shear-thinning behavior. Such behavior can be explained by a structural change in the pulp when the shear rate increases, namely the alignment of the biopolymers with increasing rotational speeds [ 10 ]. The low concentration in the disperse phase turns the continuous phase to determine he fluid features [ 11 ]. Table 3 shows the rheological features of the gabiroba pulp at different temperatures as fitted by the studied mathematical models.

Rheological features of the gabiroba pulp and statistical features for the fit of the power law and the herschel-bulkley models to the data. Table 4 shows that the flow behavior index n is minor than one, which denotes a shear-thinning behavior for the gabiroba pulp. The increase in temperature led to a decrease in the values of yield shear stress and in the flow consistency index.

A slight increase in the flow behavior index with increasing temperatures was also observed. When comparing the fits provided by the two models used, it can be concluded that the Herschel-Bulkley model provides a better fit than the Power Law model, as denoted by a higher determination coefficient R 2a lower chi-square X 2 and a lower value of Residual Sum of Squares RSS.

Therefore, the Herschel-Bulkley model is proper for describing the gabiroba pulp rheological behavior. Yield of fractions, Degree of Esterification DEdetermination of total sugar and protein fractions of the pulp of polysaccharide gabiroba in different conditions.

With regard to the viscoelastic measurements, an initial stress sweep 0 to Pa was performed in order to find the linear viscoelastic region. On a second stage, a frequency sweep was performed at a stress of 10Pa. The hydro alcoholic extract of gabiroba pulp presented the highest values of TEAC and the lowest values of EC 50which denotes a higher antioxidant capacity when compared to the ethereal extract.


It was observed a slight tendency of increase in the flow behavior index n with increasing temperature. The gabiroba pulp presents a shearthinning behavior with the presence of a yield stress. The mechanical spectrum of the gabiroba pulp shows that the module is frequency independent. Taking into account the Phytochemicals found in the gabiroba fruit, this fruit can be considered a native fruit with proper functional features and a great potential for use by the food industry.

Pectins are complex polysaccharide found in primary cell wall and intercellular layers of vegetables; these are associated with structural polysaccharides, contributing to adhesion between cells and the mechanical resistance of the cell wall. This gel is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions between the methyl ester groups and formation of hydrogen bonds. The addition of soluble solids decreases the activity and availability of free water to solvate polysaccharides, approached them and facilitating the occurrence of hydrophobic interactions between the methyl ester groups [ 13 ].

The low degree of pectin methoxylation form gels in the presence of calcium and other divalent ions. The gelation is due to formation of intermolecular junction zones between regions of different homo-galacturonic chains, according to the egg box model. Pectins are polysaccharides widely used industrially, especially in food products, which are added in small quantities. The AIR was subjected to centrifugation four times xg for 20 min and dehydrated in the vacuum oven Brand- QV Quimis to constant weight.

Then the material was filtered through filter synthetic polyester. The retained fraction was used for acid extraction. The extraction time was 60 minutes in all experiments, with the variable concentration of citric acid [0. The extractions were performed using a mechanical shaker Fisaton brand model After each extraction, the dispersions were centrifuged at xg for 20 minutes, separating the residue used for subsequent extractions.

After filtration of polyester, the precipitated material was dehydrated in the vacuum oven QV-Brand Quimis to constant weight, resulting in the respective fraction. Readings were made at nm. All tests were performed in triplicate.

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The remaining acid was removed by evaporation of the hydrolyzed. The solution was filtered through cotton xantnocarpa after this step the material was evaporated to dryness with nitrogen flow, followed by three consecutive washes of methanol to remove the remaining boron by co-distillation in the form of trimethyl borate. The spectra were collected in transmittance mode in the range of wave numbers cm -1 at a resolution of 4 cm -132scans, using powdered solid samples.

We prepared tablets of potassium bromide As white, KBr pellet was used for correction of absorption of CO 2 and air mixture prior to analysis. The areas of peaks corresponding to carboxylic groups esterified and not esterified were obtained using the software.

The degree of esterification was calculated by the equation: Weighing of polysaccharides and KBr was used Radwag an analytical balance, accurate to 0.

The table 4 presents the results for income, Degree of Esterification DElevels of total sugars and proteins of the polysaccharide fractions obtained from the pulp gabiroba.

Yields of polysaccharide fractions obtained from the pulp gabiroba ranged from 2. These results campomanesi similar to those obtained for pectin of Psidium cattleianum Sabine pulp fruit [ 17 cwmpomanesia, but lower than those found for pectin extracted from apple pomace flour [ 18 ]. The total sugar content of the polysaccharide fractions was between The physico-chemical properties of polysaccharides are determined by monosaccharide composition and content of uronic acids [ 20 ].

The highest proportion of uronic acid was detected in a fraction extracted with citric acid 0.