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Based on the RT datasheet http: The first is a two stage transistor amplifier 74dB gain based on the Tina simulation followed by a diode detector. For this circuit I assumed the sensor impedance was about 20k as I had not found the right datasheet.

A very important note is that I have not designed the supply noise filtering for this circuit. With 74dB of gain x and the input in-phase with the output, the risk of feedback is almost certain.

The 1r60 of detector diode determines the receiver sensitivity.

polarity of ultrasonic transducer

A germanium diode would work best followed by schottky diodes and lastly conventional silicon signal diodes. In both these sonar receivers I have used a pre-selection LC filter to reduce out of frequency response and to match the sensor to the transistor input impedance.

In this case I used Tina to determine the exact capacitor values but there are formulas for this if you look on the Internet. This is similar to the AVR specification. The effective source resistance is probably lower. The ultrasonic transmitter has a load impedance of about ohm based on the datasheet. So I matched the source impedance ad load impedance using a Pi network and updated the strip-board design. I calculate the output power to be 1. Here is the Tina schematic:. Looking at the receiver I had a play with reducing the supply voltage down to 3.

The sensitivity “reduced” to 20 mv from 10 mv:. In order to increase the transmitter power I have to reduce the source resistance by buffering. Many options but here is one that I looked at:. In theory you could push this circuit for higher power but the Q increases rapidly making tuning necessary and tricky. Higher Qs also slow the power ramp up. I have revised the design for 3.

I have added a pF to roll off the high frequencies faster. Here is the schematic and the response to a uV signal:. Now I have to source the inductors and capacitor values I have chosen and then update the strip-board design. A 30 mH would be an ebay order weeks but I had some 15 mH. So no problem, just double them up. Now, I had noticed that the webpage I was using gave component values that were a bit off peak at 30 kHz instead of 40 kH etc.

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I had countered this by optimising the design in Tina slow but effective. But i noticed that the components values where not the same as a practically identical but different webpage. Upon further investigation and calculating the component values by hand I found the webpage I was using was wrong.

Tina said my calculations were correct. So I started using the new webpage but even then some of the networks gave wrong answers. I some cases the component value labels were swapped around.

So I built a spreadsheet for the calculations. I worked out a band-pass network using just one 15 mH inductor:. Because the circuit is driven by a square wave, the “choke” generates inductive voltage spikes. I tried a capacitor at the base of the transistor did not work and a diode across the ‘choke”. What you will not know is that the output voltage So with the new transmitter, the expected signal is about 5 mV rms at cm return distance. I wandered down to the local electronics shop and purchased enough components for 5 sets of sensors.

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The only hiccup was that the bag of sensors that I order on ebay last February which were meant to be pairs were all transmitters. So I am not going to be able to finish the fours sensors I need for the Dalek in the next two weeks. Time is running out.

It works reasonably well for distance measurement. I got lots of bandwidth with the LMV at 3. Sometime you might have to swallow the pride because of deadlines. So my impedance estimates are off. Even so I am pretty settled on the design subject to it actually working. I intend to assemble one tomorrow. The reason I did not use op-amps was because I wanted single supply and I assumed incorrectly that low noise was important.

I have read somewhere that vibration was a problem. Any xatasheet why these Chinese modules suffer false triggers datzsheet when out of range? I would really like to understand what is going wrong. The reference to ohm throws me! Sound like a good project: It could be a trigger threshold issue.

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R4 injects signal back into the virtual ground. FYI I have done a bit of work with those sensors. Yes, delete it Cancel. About Us Contact Hackaday. DIY Sonar First lets start with the expected signal level. The sensor input impedance is 3. The signal input 3 mV suggests a minimum receiver gain of 60dB x is required. I have designed two circuits more options are available for consideration. Hers is the frequency and transient analyses: The second version is less sensitive but should not suffer feedback oscillation: Preliminary Transistor Amplifier Design The preliminary transistor amplifier design is as follows: Still it is a useful starting point.

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Pre-selection LC filter In both these sonar receivers I have used a pre-selection LC filter to reduce out of frequency response and to match the sensor to the transistor input impedance. I used capacitor tapping to scale up the impedance in the two circuits: Another design I also played with this one: The low limit of detection is in the order of uV which is a bit of overkill. The second version looks about right to me if I use a Ge diode or a Ge silicon clone.

Probably time to make a prototype using strip-board, here datqsheet a layout: Here is the Tina schematic: Here is the strip-board design: Okay, I either increase the transmitter power or increase the receiver gain.

Increasing Receiver Gain Looking at the receiver I had a play with reducing the supply voltage down to 3. The sensitivity “reduced” to 20 mv from 10 mv: It dqtasheet seem that I should revisit the two transistor pre-amp schematic. Increasing Transmitter Power In order to increase the transmitter power I have to reduce the source resistance by buffering. Many options but here is one that I looked at: The output is 5. Revised 3 transistor design I have revised the design for 3.

Here is the schematic and the response to a uV signal: The receiver can detect a uV signal which is more than enough for the low datashete transmitter: And here is the signal analysis: Strange Well I was looking at what inductors I had and what I had to buy.

But I though I would check if I can come up with a 15 mH design. Up until now I thought it was due to the influence of the transistor. I worked out a band-pass network using just one 15 mH inductor: Updated Transmitter Next was to check the transmitter. I decided to look at a single transistor design using a collector “choke”.

A two stage design is required else the Q would be too high. Here is the design I can up with: The final design uses a 6. Even Stranger Following is the Tina simulation with the zener diode: So the inductive power has been put to good use!